All About Eyes And Eye Care

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Anatomy, Functions, and Common Conditions.

The human eye is complex, they work from the moment you wake up in a day, constantly taking all the information from the world you can see. Your eyes show a clear vision when all their components work together perfectly. Let us have an overview of our eyes, their anatomy, and the common eye conditions.

Parts Of Human Eye:


The cornea is the layer of clear tissue at the front of the eye that acts like a main refractive surface

Tear ducts

The tear ducts are based in the upper and lower eyelids at the inner edge of each eye. The tears are secreted by lacrimal gland from the outlying, upper eyelid to the surface of the eye. Tears keep the cornea lubricated and free of debris. The tear ducts drain the tears away.

Iris and pupil

Iris forms the darkened part of the eye. It is a set of muscles which control the pupil,  and actually handles the opening in the middle of the eye. The iris adjusts the amount of light coming through the pupil.

Lens and retina

The lens lies behind the pupil. Light focuses on the retina, the light-sensitive cells on the rear of the eyeball. The retina converts optical information into electrical signals which are then sent to the optic nerve.

Optic nerve

The optic nerve is the thick bundle of nerve fibers which attach to the back of the eye. It carries visual information from the retina to the brain.

Various Conditions Of Eyes:

Refractive Errors

Refractive errors cause blurry vision, it happens when light does not focus properly on the retina. Glasses, contact lens or surgery can usually correct refractive errors, such as:

Myopia (nearsightedness): which is when distant objects look blurry.

Hyperopia (farsightedness): which is when nearby objects look blurry.

Astigmatism: which can cause blurry vision because the cornea is not adapted to direct light into the eye.

Presbyopia:  it is induced by loss of elasticity of eyes lens because of aging.


Glaucoma is the case when there is increased fluid pressure inside the eye. This can cause optic nerve damage. Glaucoma can cause blindness. Age, race and family history are some of the risk factors.


A cataract is a state when the lens of the eye gets clouded, it causes blurry or color-tinted vision. People with cataracts often tell “haloes” surrounding the objects they’re viewing at night. This condition is most common in older adults.

(AMD) Age-related macular degeneration

It is an age-induced disease of the eyes, caused because of gradual damage of the cells of the macula. This condition is common in patients over 60 years of age. AMD causes blurry vision, especially in the center of the field of view.


Commonly known as “lazy eye” happens due to poor sight development of the eyes. The brain favors the eye with better vision. Children suffering from problems of lid droop, tumor, or misaligned eyes have more chance of having amblyopia.

It is crucial to have an eye doctor test a young child whose eyes do not align or who has vision problems to make sure that the condition is properly diagnosed and treated.

Diabetic Retinopathy

It is a condition when blood vessels of retina induced by diabetes, resulting in blurred and dark spots in vision finally leading to blindness. The best way to avoid vision problems is to keep blood sugars under control and consult your eye doctor for a dilated eye exam every year.

Retinal detachment or tear

It is a condition caused when the retina separates from the back of the eye, also called detached retina causes partial or total loss of vision. But if treated as a medical emergency, it will help the patient to recover faster.

Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry eye condition causes a lack of tears. It is usually caused by a lack of tears formation, ear ducts or eyelids, or because of medication side effects. This condition can cause pain and blurry vision.

The Bottom Line

The human eyes are complex, knowing different parts of the eyes and its functions will help you understand all the problems and symptoms of the common eye conditions.

Getting an early treatment and taking good care of your eyes will help you maintain your health and life constantly.

Little Flower Hospital and Health Care Centre is the best eye-care hospital in Ernakulam. We desire to give you the best facilities and medical treatment for eye related ailments and complexities.

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